The Supreme Court has issued a new regulation on e-litigation which significantly expands the scope of earlier regulations and envisages the eventual development of a full-blown electronic court system, which would mean that proceedings could be commenced, court fees paid, documents and pleadings submitted, hearings conducted and judgments pronounced electronically.
Indonesia's Investment Coordinating Board (BKPM) recently issued a new regulation that amends BKPM Regulation 6/2018, which sets out guidelines and procedures for licensing and facilities under Indonesia's foreign direct investment (FDI) regime. The most significant changes include the reaffirmation that certain FDI companies must comply with divestment obligations and the confirmation that shareholding foreign directors and commissioners are exempt from the normal expatriate employment rules.
The start of 2019 saw a renewed attempt by the government to compel exporters of natural resources-based commodities to repatriate their export earnings and deposit them in the Indonesian financial system with the issuance of new rules in this regard. The minister of finance has now established penalties for non-compliance with these rules.
The Ministry of Laws and Human Rights Regulation on the Settlement of Disharmony between Laws and Regulations through Mediation recently took effect. The regulation reinstates the possibility to settle disputes concerning laws and regulations outside the courts through the introduction of mediation, including disputes over ministerial regulations, non-ministerial government institution regulations, non-structural institution regulations and regional laws and regulations.
The Indonesia National Board of Arbitration (BANI) was established in 1977. In 2016 the Ministry of Law and Human Rights created BANI Pembaharuan (ie, the Renewed BANI), which claims that it is a revised version of the original BANI. However, the original BANI does not recognise the Renewed BANI and claims that it has been using the BANI name unlawfully. This duality could create uncertainty when commercial parties wish to appoint BANI as their dispute settlement forum.
Bank Indonesia recently issued an umbrella regulation on the application of prudential norms. As with the now revoked Regulation on Offshore Loans in the Banking Sector (as amended), Regulation 21 stresses the importance of compliance with prudential norms for maintaining macroeconomic and financial system stability. However, while the previous regulation's scope was confined to offshore bank loans, Regulation 21 encompasses "offshore bank debt and FX-denominated other bank liabilities".
Leasing is an easy way for businesses to acquire office space in a prime location and helps them to free up working capital. Thus, a carefully prepared lease agreement is invaluable for the lessee and lessor. As a number of issues may be encountered when leasing a building for office space, it is important to consider these ahead of time.
The Financial Services Authority recently issued a new regulation which provides a framework to establish the Securities Finance Agency (SFA). The agency aims to boost transaction volumes and liquidity in the Indonesian stock market, particularly by encouraging margin trading and short selling. Upon its establishment, the SFA will provide securities financing to brokerage firms.
Government Regulation 1/2019 requires exporters in the natural resources sector to repatriate their forex-denominated export earnings to Indonesia. Thus, forex-denominated export proceeds in the mining, plantation, forestry and fisheries sectors must be deposited in the Indonesian financial system. Overall, the regulation is clearly intended to bolster Indonesia's balance of payments situation, which has worsened considerably over the past year.
The online single submission (OSS) system constitutes a significant overhaul of Indonesia's business and investment licensing regime. Although much later than scheduled, responsibility for the OSS has now officially transferred to the Investment Coordinating Board. The government made it clear from the outset that the OSS would take time to perfect. Although the OSS works reasonably well for the most part, a number of problems remain.
A number of anti-corruption developments took place in Indonesia in 2018. For example, the Government Regulation on Public Participation in the Prevention and Suppression of Corruption was issued in order to incentivise more whistleblowers to come forward and encourage public participation in the fight against corruption. Further, the Corruption Eradication Commission brought its first-ever prosecution against a corporation.
Indonesian entities must comply with certain requirements and follow a specific procedure when hiring foreign employees. The requirements and procedure used to be provided for in Minister of Manpower (MOM) Regulation 16/2015, as amended by MOM Regulation 35/2015. However, in 2018 the MOM issued a new regulation, which introduced a requirement to obtain a notification from the MOM when hiring foreign employees.
One of the most common ways in which a company can use a person's services is by entering into a partnership agreement and thereby treating them as a partner instead of an employee. However, partnership agreements often give rise to disputes, especially if they are terminated. There have been many cases in which the Manpower Office or the Industrial Relations Court have deemed poorly drafted partnership agreements to be employment agreements.
Until recently, the Financial Services Authority (OJK) had never issued an overarching regulation governing the development of the fintech sector as a whole or replicating the sandbox regime and pre-audit mechanism established by Bank Indonesia for fintech in the payments arena. This gap has now been filled by OJK Regulation 13/POJK.02/2018 on Digital Financial Innovation in the Financial Services Sector.
Government Regulation 24/2018 recently entered into force and established the integrated online single submission (OSS) system, which constitutes a significant overhaul of Indonesia's business licensing regime. The system aims to enable businesses to obtain all necessary central and local government business and operating licences online using the OSS portal. Although these changes have been welcomed, the OSS system remains a work in progress.
The employment of foreign citizens in Indonesia is subject to various restrictions, including with regard to employment terms. Foreign employees can be employed only on a temporary basis and thus cannot be considered permanent employees. However, they also cannot be considered fixed-term employees under Articles 56 and 59 of the Manpower Law. Despite this framework, mediators and the Industrial Relations Court have expressed inconsistent views on the legal status of foreign employees.
After nine years of regulating e-money transactions, the Indonesian Central Bank has responded to changes in technology by replacing the previous e-money regulation. The issuance of the new regulation has significantly changed the e-money landscape, as it applies to all licensed e-money players and prioritises consumer protection by requiring minimum capital and the placement of floating funds.
Previously, under the Manpower Law, employers in Indonesia could include an article in their employment agreements, company regulations or collective labour agreements which allowed them to terminate employees for having a marital or blood relationship with another employee in the same company. However, the Constitutional Court recently sided with eight individual claimants who contended that the wording of the law contravened their constitutional rights.
The number of expatriate employees taking legal action against their employers for terminating their employment contracts, whether for economic reasons or for misconduct, has grown in recent years. Although most jurists maintain that expatriates cannot be permanent employees or receive the same severance entitlements as Indonesian permanent employees, this has not always been the case.
Following the recent issuance of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources decree which imposed price caps on coal supplied for power generation in the public interest, the coal industry was expected to undertake significant lobbying in order to reduce or limit the decree's impact. This anticipated lobbying appears to have commenced already, as the decree was amended on March 12 2018 after having been on the statute books for just four days.