According to the Copyright Act, for copyright to subsist in a work, the work must be original and reduced to material form. However, if ideas and innovation are the result of the shared lived experience of the common person, how can it be determined whether a work is 'original' as defined in, for example, the Copyright Act? In order to be original, a work need not be innovative or new, but rather the result of the author's own skill, time and effort expended in creating the work.
South Africa has seen a dramatic rise in entrepreneurial activity, with many seeking to launch new products in the marketplace. However, with the success of a product comes the risk of the idea being copied and advantage being taken of the already established route to market, thereby affecting the original product's sales and brand. Therefore, any party that creates or legitimately distributes a product that they believe will be well received must take the appropriate steps to protect it.
A granted patent is a highly lucrative commercial tool in the hands of the patent applicant. However, inventors are not necessarily entitled to apply for a patent, especially in employment contexts. Inventors are therefore advised to consult with a patent attorney when they are uncertain whether an invention falls within the scope and course of their employment. It is further advisable to enter into negotiations with employers regarding compensation for the invention.
Patenting inventions is notoriously expensive; however, the benefits of having exclusive rights over an invention far exceed any initial patenting costs. The problem remains that a decision on whether to patent an invention must often be made long before the invention's commercial potential can be judged. As such, it is often difficult to know what to patent.
The Designs Act (195/1993) gives the proprietor of a registered design control over it for a limited period. This control is not aimed at protecting an underlying concept, but rather at the appearance of a product embodying the design. This article discusses (among other things) proprietor rights, the difference between aesthetic and functional designs and the costs involved in registering a design.
Many celebrities extend their brands by venturing into various industries, such as Bonang Matheba who recently launched her own range of sparkling wine. While these endeavours can work well, they also create opportunities for individuals to infringe on the IP rights embedded in celebrities' respective ventures. As such, there are a number of IP rights that celebrities can use to maintain control over their brands and regulate how they are used by others.
South Africa has no plant patent system, as the Patents Act states that a patent will not be granted for any variety of plant. Therefore, new plant varieties are protected exclusively under the Plant Breeders' Rights Act. However, genetically modified plants could be patentable subject matter under the Patents Act, as they are not strictly classed as new varieties of plant.
An element isolated from the human body or otherwise produced by means of a technical process, including the sequence or partial sequence of a gene, may constitute a patentable invention. However, when considering the patenting of a life sciences invention in South Africa, a number of questions should be addressed in relation to, among other things, the invention's novelty, inventiveness and usefulness.
The Counterfeit Goods Act was proclaimed to enforce and protect IP rights holders against counterfeiting. The act enables certain IP rights holders and other persons with an interest in protected goods – including licensees, importers, exporters, distributors and duly authorised attorneys and agents – to act speedily and efficiently against persons involved in counterfeiting on either a criminal or civil level.
South Africa has significant exchange control regulations in place that restrict and require approval for payments in international IP licensing relationships. Typically, if an IP right in issue has been commercialised or if its commercialisation is imminent, exchange control requires an appropriately motivated valuation substantiating the price to be furnished.
A patent grants the holder an exclusive right or monopoly to exclude third parties from exploiting the patented invention for a limited period in a specific territory. This article discusses the nuances of South African law in this regard, including with regard to patentable inventions, patent longevity and the requirements for patent specifications.
South Africa has no specific legislation governing trade secrets or know-how, although they can be effectively protected under common law. Parties will often enter into agreements when transferring trade secrets or know-how between each other for any purpose. These agreements expressly protect the use and handling of information and set out the indemnities in respect of its loss or misuse.
Trademarks are a company's most valuable asset. Over time, they can appreciate in value and as a company's reputation grows, so too will the value of its trademarks. This article provides an overview of South Africa's trademark legislation and serves as a useful guide on, among other things, the trademark application procedure, buying and selling trademarks and company or close corporation name protection.
Under South African statute, the owner of copyright in a work is given the exclusive right to perform certain specified acts in respect of that work or to authorise others to do so, thus preventing unauthorised persons from performing those acts. However, only certain specified categories of work defined in the Copyright Act are eligible for copyright protection.
The Constitutional Court's recent judgment decriminalising the private use of cannabis has garnered significant attention in South Africa. As predicted, the judgment has encouraged a number of existing and potential companies to create a brand for their business in order to grow and distribute cannabis in South Africa. Unfortunately, most of these businesses must delay their plans for their brand's trademark application – although possibly not for long.
South Africa is an attractive launch pad for many international companies when it comes to the protection and enforcement of intellectual property for their services or products that they wish to share with Africa. Even more attractive is South Africa's simple, quick and affordable patent system. There is no patent opposition in South Africa and the validity of a patent can be challenged only post-grant by way of the court system.
Proprietors that are interested in registering a shape or container mark should be aware of the kind of protection that a specific IP act affords them and ensure that they layer their rights in order to have the best protection as well as protection in perpetuity. The most important question for proprietors in this regard is whether they intend to use the shape for a short or prolonged period.
When a student is studying or planning to study at a university in South Africa, it is important that they understand their rights as an IP creator during that time. Many students, especially undergraduates, will argue that they do not participate in research and development in any manner and that intellectual property is merely a module for law students. However, all students may be IP creators without being aware of it.
In order to build a brand, one of the most important steps is to register a trademark. The first step is to conduct a search of the Trademarks Register to ensure that the trademark does not infringe registered rights. Provided that the results of this clearance search are favourable, the next step is to file an application for registration. However, this is not the final step, as action can be taken for trademark infringement only once the trademark has been registered.
Graffiti is generally no longer considered to be a work of vandalism or an act of destruction of public property. Instead, it has become a marketable commodity, with some fashion labels and major corporations even using it in their advertising campaigns. However, graffiti's legal status as art has not been established, which begs the question of whether it can be protected by copyright and has raised a number of issues concerning its commercial use.