The BVI tax information exchange system is largely modelled on international principles developed by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development and is split into two types of regime. The 'automatic' exchange of information regime requires financial institutions to exchange formulistic data about the accounts of foreign taxpayers, while the 'on request' regime deals with specific and potentially in-depth investigations into the affairs of named taxpayers with offshore or international holdings.
Earnings within tax-free savings accounts (TFSAs) and other tax-deferred plans are, in principle, supposed to grow tax free. However, some taxes still apply, including the advantage tax which applies at the rate of 100% of any 'advantage' (as defined in the Income Tax Act). This tax has become one of the Canada Revenue Agency's favourite tools to effectively expropriate what it views as improperly boosted returns within a TFSA.
The Federal Court has made a strong statement against an interpretation of the Canada Revenue Agency's (CRA's) powers that would allow almost unlimited invasions of taxpayer privacy. The force with which the court rejected the self-serving interpretation advanced by the CRA should be encouraging for taxpayers. The case serves as an important reminder that the CRA cannot act outside the bounds of law and that it is the courts, and not the CRA, that interpret the law.
In these heady days of cryptocurrency investment, the market can seem like a gold rush – offering promise, but at the expense of predictability. Cryptocurrency taxation is no different. Increasing scrutiny from all types of regulator, including the tax authorities, seems inevitable for the sector. While this may diminish potential profits when compared to the early days of cryptocurrencies, it will likely add structure, transparency and legitimacy in the long term.
The Tax Court of Canada has released a landmark decision on the goods and services tax/harmonised sales tax status of certain commonplace transaction processing services – namely, Visa's payment platform offered to financial institutions. The court held that the supply of services made by Visa to the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce fell outside the definition of a 'financial service' under the Excise Tax Act and therefore did not qualify as an exempt supply.
Quebec recently announced that it intends to expand its requirements for non-resident vendors to collect and remit Quebec sales tax on sales to Quebec consumers, effective as early as January 1 2019. It will be interesting to see whether the Quebec government has the authority to impose requirements on non-resident businesses that do not carry on business in the province. Another issue will be whether an assessment for failure to collect the tax can be enforced against a non-Quebec seller.
As Cayman Islands entities are not directly subject to the so-called 'automatic exchange of information' agreements, the government has introduced legislation to implement these under the Tax Information Authority Law. Guidance notes have also been issued, providing details of the notification, reporting and ongoing obligations that apply, as well as a useful reminder of the differences between the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act and the Common Reporting Standard.
A taxpayer recently requested a ruling from the Tax Department on the treatment of gains from cryptocurrency transactions for income and value added tax purposes, as cryptocurrencies are not specifically regulated in Chile or recognised as legal tender or foreign currency. The department's analysis reflected the broad definition of 'income' in the Income Tax Act and the fact that there is no specific exemption or favourable treatment given to these specific gains.
A business group recently requested an advance ruling from the Internal Revenue Service regarding the merger of a Chilean subsidiary with a company resident in a low-tax jurisdiction. The service stated that pursuant to Article 64 of the Tax Code, it will not exercise its assessment authority where it has been effectively proven that the legal effects of a merger in another country will be carried out in accordance with Chilean legislation and that the operation will be carried out under the terms of tax neutrality.
The Tax Department recently issued Circular 57, which provides a definition of a 'permanent establishment' for domestic law purposes and underlines that such fixed places of business require a tax registration number. Although the circular has been issued with a limited scope, it may have additional benefits, including identifying whether a foreign entity or individual has a permanent establishment operating in Chile.
The Supreme Court recently revoked two appeal court decisions in which the underlying issue was the Tax Department's authority to deny taxpayers the ability to issue invoices in certain circumstances. It is unclear whether the Tax Department will review its criteria in this regard, as court decisions in Chile affect only the parties in the specific case.
A taxpayer resident in Chile with a portfolio investment in the United States recently requested a ruling on whether he was entitled to a refund of certain withholding taxes paid by the portfolio because it included bonds issued in Chile. The taxpayer argued that withholding tax should be refunded to the beneficiary of the interest if the beneficiary is a Chilean resident. However, the Tax Department took a different view.
The Income Tax Law was recently amended to provide an exemption of up to 50% for income derived from the production of films, series and other relevant audiovisual media. In addition, small enterprises may claim an annual deduction of 20% of the cost of cinematographic infrastructure and technological equipment, provided that it has been used in Cyprus for at least five years.
The Tax Department recently announced that the procedures for ratifying the protocol amending the Convention on the Avoidance of Double Taxation between Cyprus and San Marino have been completed. The protocol, which entered into force on 27 June 2018, replaces the text of Article 25 of the convention with the text of the corresponding article of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Model Convention 2014.
The Tax Department recently announced that constituent entities of Cyprus ultimate parent entities (UPEs) will not be subject to local filing in their jurisdiction of tax residence, provided that the tax information exchange arrangement under the Common Reporting Standard Multilateral Competent Authority Agreement has been activated. Further, local filing will not apply to Cyprus-resident constituent entities which have no Cyprus tax resident UPEs.
The Cyprus Tax Department recently announced that the procedures for ratification of the protocol dated 23 October 2017 amending the Convention on the Avoidance of Double Taxation between Cyprus and Mauritius have been completed, and that the protocol entered into force on 2 May 2018. The protocol replaces the text of Article 27 of the convention with the text of the corresponding article of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Model Convention 2014.
The Cyprus Tax Department recently published for consultation draft legislation to implement the EU Tax Dispute Resolution Mechanisms Directive. The draft legislation comprises an amending law, which adds two new articles to the Income Tax Law 2002 and regulations to be issued under the second of those articles. The new law is intended to take effect from 1 July 2019.