The National Identity Management Commission recently issued the Mandatory Use of the National Identification Number Regulations 2017, under which "the filing and registration of criminal and civil actions in courts or other arbitration processes" is now included in the list of transactions that require the use of a national identity number. Although this requirement is legitimate, how it will be enforced in private transactions and the effects of non-compliance on such transactions remain unclear.
The Federal High Court recently dismissed an application to set aside an arbitral tribunal's final award on the grounds that the tribunal had misconducted itself by reformulating the issues agreed by the parties to include a preliminary issue which was capable of removing the need to determine all of the issues presented by the parties. The court held that although a jurisdictional error is a variant of misconduct, it is only where a tribunal has acted without jurisdiction that its decision is liable to be set aside.
The Court of Appeal recently held that the Tax Appeal Tribunal has jurisdiction to adjudicate tax-related disputes. The appellants in the case successfully argued that the tribunal's jurisdiction to determine tax disputes does not encroach on the exclusive jurisdiction of the Federal High Court, as bringing tax appeals before the tribunal is merely a condition precedent to approaching the court. Further, the tribunal's decisions can be reviewed and quashed by the court.
For the aviation sector to generate more income, the government must address a number of challenges to maximise the sector's full potential. Such challenges include compliance with the International Civil Aviation Organisation global standards, the difficulties experienced by aviation stakeholders wanting to access funds or ensure financing for the modernisation and expansion of their infrastructure, the slow implementation of the Yamoussoukro Decision and Nigeria's requisite skill shortages.
For the Nigerian aviation industry 2018 began on a relatively high note. In 2017 the sector experienced a number of milestones which should serve as leverage for building success as the country becomes an air travel hub in West Africa. These developments include the country's increased ranking in the Level 3 State Safety Programme Implementation Process, the International Civil Aviation Organisation certification of two airports and the signing of the Executive Order on Ease of Doing Business in Nigeria.
It is important that the safety and security standards adopted in the Nigerian aviation sector be given proper attention to ensure the protection and safeguarding of all stakeholders against acts of unlawful interference or other threats. However, aviation security in Nigeria is fraught with challenges and this has brought about recent deliberations from the government, regulators, the aviation industry and the public.
In May 2017 the Federal Executive Council approved the allocation of N1.52 billion for the financing of preparatory steps towards, among other things, the reintroduction of a national airline. While this is commendable, the need for a national carrier cannot serve as the conclusive basis for a decision that will have adverse effects on national and economic planning. As such, the government must carefully consider and address the concerns regarding the re-establishment of a national airline.
The Nigerian aviation industry has the potential to contribute in excess of 5% to the nation's gross domestic product and support over 1 million jobs. Nigeria's recent achievements and Level 3 rating in the state safety programme implementation process have positioned the country to become a travel hub. However, the inherent challenges facing the industry must be addressed before this status can be achieved.
The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) has started 2017 on a bullish note by overseeing the valuation of the naira. In addition, the CBN has intervened in the foreign exchange market in an effort to narrow the significant gap between the official exchange rate and the parallel market rate. This seems to be working, but it remains to be seen how sustainable it will be in the long term.
The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) recently lifted its peg on the naira. Despite the CBN's decision to float the naira, which in effect is a devaluation, the foreign exchange market has experienced a high rate of volatility. As such, it remains to be seen whether the effective devaluation of the naira was the right move.
In order to revolutionise its economy, Nigeria must formulate policies dedicated to industrial growth, as such growth can attract foreign investment. It is hoped that the existing wave of industrialisation in Nigeria will be accompanied by a political will to implement clearly defined policies to industrialise the country and increase the number of M&A transactions.
Developing countries rely heavily on foreign direct investment to promote their economies. However, the period of unrest facing many emerging economies, including Nigeria, is a cause for concern. This instability has had far-reaching effects on Nigeria's emerging economy, especially in the context of M&A transactions. Foreign investors have been reluctant to participate in a number of potential M&A activities, undoubtedly because of the costs associated with investing in an unstable country.
M&A activity in Nigeria declined in 2015, with a 22% drop in the number of deals and a 65% drop in the overall value of deals. This decline was due to regulatory uncertainty, falling oil prices and the volatility of the naira, as well as uncertainty surrounding the 2015 general election, which resulted in investor caution. It is hoped that the government will now aggressively enforce the drive for economic diversification, thus boosting the trend for M&A transactions.
'Squeeze-out' is a right that entitles a majority shareholder with at least 90% of the shares or voting rights in a company to acquire the remaining shares or voting rights compulsorily, and allows minority shareholders to exit the company by selling their shares to the majority shareholder. However, the Nigerian squeeze-out regime remains largely untested in practice.
The House of Representatives recently considered a motion to declare Kogi, Enugu and Anambra oil producing states following the discovery of oil and gas deposits in commercial quantities. It subsequently urged the federal government to hold bids for oil prospecting and mining of the discoveries and declare the states oil producing states.
The National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency Act (Amendment) Bill 2018 recently underwent its second reading. If passed in its existing form, the bill will have a significant effect on the operations of the oil and gas industry. For example, the bill makes it mandatory for oil industry operators in Nigeria to subscribe to and be bona fide members of Clean Nigeria Associates and imposes a levy on oil companies calculated at 0.5% of their operations funds.