In recent years, the Hungarian Competition Authority (HCA) has seemingly aimed to foster cooperation between itself and market participants. Recent case law shows that the HCA strives for cooperation even when market participants allegedly commit grave infringements of the competition rules. Market participants are advised to harness this tendency and the HCA's willingness to reach decisions more efficiently.
Keeping in mind US tax basis and estate tax issues while establishing and maintaining a succession planning structure can protect the estate of a non-US settlor from US estate tax and prove beneficial after the settlor's death where a branch of the family moves to the United States or a family member marries a US citizen. Recent changes to the US Tax Code have prompted some US tax advisers to suggest additional layers of entities to the structure, the additional cost and complexity of which may not result in substantial tax savings.
The Protection of Paternity Law provides paternity leave only to men who are married to their child's mother before the child's birth or adoption. The House of Representatives recently tried to address this oversight by introducing an amending law, under which all fathers would be entitled to paid paternity leave regardless of their marital status. However, these changes have yet to come into force because the president referred the amending laws to the Supreme Court, claiming that they are unconstitutional.
The Eastern Finland Appeal Court recently assessed whether a statutory maritime lien over cargo also covers the costs associated with a general average that accrued as a result of confirming that general average and exercising the lien for a general average contribution. In deciding that these kinds of associated costs and expenses are not recoverable and secured by a maritime lien, the court made the exercise of a lien more difficult and less attractive to shipowners.
The Supreme Court of Canada recently dismissed Alexion Pharmaceuticals' application for leave to appeal the Federal Court of Appeal decision in Alexion Pharmaceuticals Inc v Canada (Attorney General). The Federal Court of Appeal had dismissed Alexion's challenge of the constitutionality of certain Patent Act provisions relating to the Patented Medicine Prices Review Board's remedial powers.
The Federal Court of Justice recently clarified a number of issues under the Budapest Convention on the Contract for the Carriage of Goods by Inland Waterway – most importantly, the determination (calculation) of the limitation per weight of goods. According to the court, only the weight specified in the transport document can be invoked; if no weight is mentioned in the transport document, the carrier must rely on the limitation per package.
The National Agency for Waterway Transportation recently published Resolution 6,235, approving the agency's regulatory agenda for the 2018-2019 biennium. The regulatory agenda aims to inform the regulated sector and society at large about the agency's main regulatory issues for the biennium.
While many legal issues surrounding the recent JU-Air Junkers Ju-52 crash have yet to be determined by the Swiss Transportation Safety Investigation Board, claims for passenger deaths will be governed by the EU-Swiss Air Transport Agreement. The agreement extends the scope of the liability provisions of the Montreal Convention for passenger deaths to domestic carriage by Community air carriers and requires advance payments to cover the victims' families' immediate economic needs after an accident.
Although Mexico has some of the most stringent regulations regarding the growth, use and marketing of marijuana, this position has recently changed, as evidenced by the amendments to the General Health Law which permit the health authorities to design and execute public policies regarding the use of pharmacological derivatives of marijuana. However, the question remains as to whether hemp constitutes a narcotic under the General Health Law.
The Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) recently published the Procedure and Submission Guidelines for the CADTH Common Drug Review, which consolidate two previously separate guidelines and include a number of revisions to the submission requirements. These changes will be enforced for all submissions and resubmissions received on or after 27 July 2018.
The Shared Maternity Leave and Benefit Bill is still at an early stage but, if enacted, it would transform the potential entitlements of fathers, among others, to take time off following the birth of their child. It would also allow pregnant employees to share ordinary maternity leave with a relevant parent. If the bill moves forward, employers will need to update their policies regarding maternity leave and consider how to treat those on shared maternity leave.
If enacted, a recently published legal notice will introduce amendments to the Temporary Agency Workers Regulations, including expanding the concept of assigned temporary workers, redefining 'pay' and removing the equal pay rule exception. This article summarises the proposed amendments to the regulations and raises some pertinent questions.
The European Commission has proposed to implement a directive on work-life balance for parents and carers which aims to increase the number of dual-earning families and help women return to work, while also requiring more flexibility from employers. Should the proposed directive enter into force, it will set minimum standards regarding parental and carer leave and will thus bring about considerable change for the Hungarian employment and social systems.
The Quebec Human Rights Tribunal recently held that student status and the fact that students work during the summer to pay for their studies must be equated to a social condition protected under the Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms. According to the tribunal, a collective agreement clause that allocates a lower wage to students could constitute discriminatory treatment because it represents a distinction based on two prohibited grounds of discrimination: social condition and age.
Four new legal notices affecting employment laws were recently published in the Government Gazette. Whether the notices must be considered as law and enforceable before the Maltese tribunals and courts is now the subject of debate. However, it is clear that the government intends to introduce some piecemeal changes that will affect employers significantly, including new rules on payslips that all employers – irrespective of size – must issue and new limitations on holiday leave arrangements.
The recently elected government administration has publicly announced that it intends to eliminate the private medical insurance currently granted to public officials as part of their benefits. This measure aims to encourage public officials to use state medical services and reduce government expenditure. If the cancellation of this benefit is confirmed, a significant number of officials are likely to seek major medical expenses insurance, which will present an opportunity for various companies in the sector.
In Fairfield Sentry Limited (In Liquidation) v Farnum Place LLC the BVI Court of Appeal varied a costs order based on a material change of circumstances – namely, a decision of the US Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. The BVI court held that the US decision was a "material change of circumstances" which allowed it to vary the costs order by disallowing the costs of Farnum's expert.
The president recently approved, with a partial veto, the Project for a General Law regarding Data Protection. The law will regulate the processing of personal data in Brazil. Even though this adaptation may be costly and time consuming, the enforcement of the law is expected to guarantee greater protection of personal data, increasing confidence in Brazil's economic environment.
In certain circumstances the courts in Hong Kong can extend Mareva relief against a defendant to third parties under the so-called 'Chabra' jurisdiction. In a recent case, the assets which the trustees sought to locate were not directly held by the bankrupt, but appear to have been indirectly held through a family trust and related companies. As before, the court demonstrated its willingness to extend Mareva relief under the Chabra jurisdiction in deserving cases.
The Commercial Court recently discharged an injunction restraining the enforcement of a US court order made under Section 1782 of Title 28 of the US Code (Assistance to foreign and international tribunals and to litigants before such tribunals). Section 1782 applications can be a useful weapon in an English litigator's armoury as a means of obtaining evidence under the control of a US-based entity through US-style discovery, including by the use of depositions and documentary evidence.