Private Client & Offshore Services updates

Bahamas

Contributed by Lennox Paton
Privy Council determines extraterritorial reach of clawback claims in insolvency proceedings
  • Bahamas
  • 22 August 2019

The Privy Council has determined that, notwithstanding the absence of express statutory provisions permitting service out of the jurisdiction of fraudulent preference claims, such claims are to have extraterritorial effect. This decision clarifies the law as it relates to the extraterritorial effect of fraudulent preference claims; however, it also creates difficulties for subscribers to mutual funds that may be held liable for investments made on behalf of third-party beneficiaries that are the ultimate recipients of payments.

New tax reforms in effect
  • Bahamas
  • 18 July 2019

In the 2019/2020 Budget Communication the government announced various tax reforms which came into effect on 1 July 2019. Among other things, the cap on owner-occupied property has increased from B$50,000 to B$60,000 per year and stamp duty on real property has been replaced by value added tax (VAT) at the same rates. Further, any party that is required to become a VAT registrant must have a business licence.

Extinguishment of purchasers' rights – importance of priority in unregistered land systems
  • Bahamas
  • 20 June 2019

The Bahamas has an unregistered land system that is based on the conveyancing laws of England and Wales issued before 1925. Therefore, deeds and documents should be recorded in the Registry of Records in The Bahamas as soon as possible. Priority becomes particularly important in high-net-worth commercial and condominium development transactions.

Register of Beneficial Ownership Act: a new day for beneficial owners
  • Bahamas
  • 09 May 2019

Since 2001 international organisations such as the Financial Action Task Force have pressured offshore financial centres to pass legislation in order to increase transparency within their financial services sectors. As such, the Register of Beneficial Ownership Act recently came into effect in The Bahamas. The act seeks to create a private search registry containing details of beneficial owners of domestic and international companies in The Bahamas.

Bahamian insolvency regime continues to promote judicial efficiency
  • Bahamas
  • 28 February 2019

The Bahamian legislature continues to examine its existing legislation for ways to promote judicial efficiency by amending and implementing new procedures in its insolvency regime. As the global economy continues to grow and foreign companies and investors increasingly face obstacles arising from the use of offshore structures, the need for cross-border insolvency proceedings and the use of protection afforded to investors will likely continue to increase.


Belize

Contributed by Courtenay Coye LLP
The importance of legal advice for timeshare rights
  • Belize
  • 16 July 2015

The Supreme Court recently highlighted the need to comply strictly with essential legal requirements when investing in property abroad. It found that US citizens who had purchased timeshare interests in a residential resort could not exercise their purported rights in priority of a bank's mortgage interest on the property because they had not registered their timeshares or paid the required stamp duty.

Directors' indemnities foolproof
  • Belize
  • 16 April 2015

The Belize Court of Appeal recently confirmed that indemnities given by a Belizean company to its directors deprived the company of a cause of action to pursue a claim against former directors for decisions taken during their term as company directors. Belize continues to recognise blanket indemnities given by a company to directors as legal.

Appeal Court clarifies procedural law on claims against foreign defendants
  • Belize
  • 04 September 2014

The Belize Court of Appeal has provided guidance to litigants involved in multi-jurisdictional litigation. The court interpreted the rules applicable to commencing a claim against foreign defendants, and service of a claim form and interim injunction on parties outside the jurisdiction. Under the Civil Procedure Rules there is no need to obtain permission to issue a claim form for service abroad.

Enforcement of LCIA award refused as contrary to public policy
  • Belize
  • 22 May 2014

The Caribbean Court of Justice has addressed the issue of whether New York Convention Awards should be enforced. The case is exceptional and should be confined to its unusual facts. However, it stands as highly persuasive authority for the proposition that violations of the constitutional order by a government when affording tax concessions to investors may afford a defence to enforcement of an arbitral award.

Caribbean Court of Justice rules government must arbitrate under treaty
  • Belize
  • 08 August 2013

The Caribbean Court of Justice has delivered a landmark decision which narrows the circumstances in which a government may resort to its domestic courts to restrain international arbitration proceedings. The decision is an important victory for international investors in the Commonwealth Caribbean, since many bilateral investment treaties include clauses for resolution of disputes by international arbitration.


Bermuda

Contributed by Carey Olsen Bermuda
Important decision concerning confirmation of actions by improperly appointed trustees
  • Bermuda
  • 15 August 2019

Bermuda's chief justice recently handed down an important decision dealing with the power of the court to intervene in the administration of a trust to approve actions of improperly appointed trustees. This case is important because it confirms the court's inherent jurisdiction, on the appointment of trustees, to grant them leave to administer the trust on the basis that they were properly appointed on a prior date.

New code of conduct for insurance brokers and agents
  • Bermuda
  • 08 August 2019

The Bermuda Monetary Authority recently published the Insurance Brokers and Insurance Agents Code of Conduct. The code was developed in consideration of the international standards set by the International Association of Insurance Supervisors and is intended to assist the authority in providing appropriate, effective and efficient supervision and regulation of Bermuda-registered brokers and agents.

Update to Bermuda's economic substance legislation
  • Bermuda
  • 01 August 2019

A number of important updates to Bermuda's economic substance regime were introduced in June 2019. These include the recent enactment of the Economic Substance Amendment Act, which, among other things, excludes non-resident entities from the scope of the economic substance regime and modifies the provisions that govern the exchange of information. Further, the registrar of companies has issued guidance notes to help entities determine whether they fall within the economic substance regime.

Privy Council clarifies Bermuda's '60/40 rule'
  • Bermuda
  • 27 June 2019

In a judgment which is likely to have wide-ranging implications for local companies subject to the '60/40 rule', the Privy Council recently held that local companies may confer on non-Bermudians "de facto control by commercial arrangements", provided that non-Bermudians have no control over the manner in which directors and shareholders vote.

Court exercises inherent jurisdiction to appoint protectors
  • Bermuda
  • 20 June 2019

In a recent case, the Supreme Court delivered an important judgment in which it exercised its inherent supervisory powers over trusts to appoint protectors. The court also reaffirmed the wide breadth of its jurisdiction under Section 47 of the Trustee Act 1975 to grant trustees power to vary trusts when it is satisfied that it is expedient to do so.


British Virgin Islands

Contributed by Harneys
Taking charge: Commercial Court delivers judgment on its jurisdiction to grant charging orders
  • British Virgin Islands
  • 06 June 2019

The Commercial Court recently confirmed that the BVI courts have jurisdiction to grant charging orders. Charging orders are a critically important tool, particularly when enforcing foreign judgments, as they allow creditors to take a proprietary interest over assets owned by a debtor and can ultimately facilitate the sale of such assets to allow creditors to realise their debts.

Scope of disclosure orders and contempt of court
  • British Virgin Islands
  • 30 May 2019

A BVI court recently considered a contempt application seeking further disclosure by way of an 'unless' order and whether cross-examination of the respondents should be ordered to determine the issue of contempt. This decision highlights the exceptional nature of cross-examination orders and the high standard of proof required for contempt orders.

Relief all round – Court of Appeal upholds relief from sanction
  • British Virgin Islands
  • 02 May 2019

The BVI Court of Appeal recently denied an appellant declaratory relief and upheld the respondents' relief from sanction, as granted by the lower court. While this judgment will inevitably provide some comfort to those that find themselves facing sanctions having inadvertently failed to comply with a rule, practice direction or order, it is a timely reminder for everyone that it is better to remain vigilant and compliant than to rely on the court's jurisdiction to grant relief from sanction.

No more second chances: Court of Appeal guidance on strike out
  • British Virgin Islands
  • 25 April 2019

The Court of Appeal recently clarified the procedural considerations required following the strike out of an action pursuant to Civil Procedure Rule 26.3. All three of the appellants' procedural grounds of appeal were rejected by the court, which held that (among other things) a judge must give a party which has a defective pleading an opportunity to put right any defect.

Misplaced trust – what happens when your trustee goes AWOL?
  • British Virgin Islands
  • 04 April 2019

In a recent case, an applicant succeeded in the increasingly commonplace but frustrating situation where the beneficiary of a revocable bare trust cannot obtain execution of the trust due to an uncooperative or defunct corporate nominee. The court ultimately granted the vesting order sought by the beneficial owner and appointed an insolvency practitioner as the statutory proper person.


Cayman Islands

Contributed by Ogier
Q&A on Cayman AML regime: service providers, delegation and risk-based approach
  • Cayman Islands
  • 13 June 2019

The government and the Cayman Islands Monetary Authority are well aware that it is imperative that the Cayman Islands is not only perceived to, but does in fact, play a central role in the global fight against money laundering and terrorist financing. At the same time, there is a deep understanding of the need to remain competitive and commercial. This article addresses a number of key questions concerning the 2018 amendments to Cayman's anti-money laundering regime.

Impact of evolving relationship between investors and managers on fund structuring
  • Cayman Islands
  • 06 June 2019

This article addresses how the landscape for the structuring of offshore investment funds established in the Cayman Islands is changing and how this change is being driven by the evolving relationship between investors and investment fund managers – in particular, how the balance of power has in many cases shifted from the manager to the investor.

Cayman Islands economic substance requirements
  • Cayman Islands
  • 11 April 2019

New legislation recently came into force in the Cayman Islands requiring in-scope entities that carry on particular activities to have demonstrable economic substance in Cayman. Relevant entities must make an annual report as to whether they are carrying on one or more of a defined list of activities (relevant activities). If they are, they must satisfy an economic substance test in Cayman in respect of such relevant activities.

Latest interpretation of illegality defence
  • Cayman Islands
  • 04 April 2019

A Cayman court recently considered numerous complex areas of the law concerning commercial fraud and the ability to trace assets through corporate groups and into sophisticated financial products. This article discusses the court's findings regarding the illegality defence and the lessons which can be derived for future Cayman cases in which this defence might be engaged.

Not in dispute – why Cayman leads in cross-border dispute resolution and how the sector is evolving
  • Cayman Islands
  • 28 March 2019

Insolvency and restructuring cases are perhaps the most common types of cross-border dispute heard by the Grand Court, but other examples include trust disputes, which can often involve high-net-worth families and trust assets spread across the globe, and the enforcement of foreign judgments and arbitral awards. High-profile examples of cross-border cooperation between the Grand Court and foreign courts include the Bank of Credit and Commerce International liquidation and the Ocean Rig restructuring.